Lucas P, Ahrens M, Geršl J, Sparreboom W, Lötters, J, “Primary standard for liquid flow rates between 30 and 1500 nl/min based on volume expansion”, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, 60(4), 2015.
An increasing number of microfluidic systems operate at flow rates below 1 μl/min. Applications include (implanted) micropumps for drug delivery, liquid chromatography, and microreactors. For the applications where the absolute accuracy is important, a proper calibration is required. However, with standard calibration facilities, flow rate calibrations below ~1 μl/min are not feasiblebecause of a too large calibration uncertainty. In the current research, a traceable flow rate using a certain temperature increase rate is proposed. When the fluid properties, starting mass, and temperature increase rate are known, this principle yields a direct link to SI units, which makesit a primary standard. In this article, it will be shown that this principle enables flow rate uncertainties in the order of 2–3% for flow rates from 30 to 1500 nl/min.
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