VSL participates in various kinds of research projects & partnerships. The results of these projects were published. Below you will find an overview of these publications.
C H E M I S T R Y
Metrology for Biomethane
Van der Veen A.M.H., Nieuwenkamp G., Zalewska E.T., Li J., De Krom I., Persijn S.T., Meuzelaar H., “Advances in metrology for energy-containing gases and emerging demands”, Metrologia, Accepted Manuscript online 6 March 2020.
Cuccia L., Sanz B., Castro D. B., Li J., van der Veen A.M.H., di Meane E. A., Moreno S., Culleton L. P., Vorin D., Senné C., Bougueroua F., Pyrée L., Courtois Y., Tastard C., “Development of standardized methods for the analysis of amines, terpenes and ammonia in biomethane”, 19th International Congress of Metrology (CIM2019), EDP Sciences, 2019.
Li J., Persijn S.T., de Krom I., Meuzelaar H., van der Veen A.M.H., “Metrology for biomethane conformity assessment: measure trace gas impurities in biomethane”, 19th International Congress of Metrology (CIM2019), EDP Sciences, 2019.
Van der Veen A.M.H., Nieuwenkamp G., Zalewska E.T., Li J., De Krom I., Persijn S.T., Meuzelaar H., “Advances in metrology for energy-containing gases”, Metrologia, submitted.
Jianrong Li, Adriaan M.H. van der Veen, Stefan Persijn and Iris de Krom, Progress in developing measurement standards and standardised test methods for biogas and biomethane assessment, oral presentation and conference proceedings, 11th World Bioenergy Congress and Expo (Bioenergy 2018 conference), 2-4 July 2018, Berlin, Germany.
Jianrong Li, Adriaan M.H. van der Veen, Iris de Krom and Stefan Persijn, Development of measurement standards and standardised test methods for biogas and biomethane conformity assessment, oral presentation and conference proceedings, International Conference on Anaerobic Digestion (Biogas Science 2018 conference), 17-19 September 2018, Turin, Italy.
Metrology for hydrogen vehicles
Hydrogen purity analysis: suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds; Karine Arrhenius, Haleh Bohlen, Oliver Büker, Iris de Krom, Dita Heikens, Janneke van Wijk; Applied Sciences, 10, no. 1 (2020): 120.
Design of gravimetric primary standards for field-testing of hydrogen refuelling stations; M.de Huu, M. Tschannen, H. Bissig, P. Stadelmann, O. Büker, M. MacDonald, R. Maury, P.T. Neuvonen, H.T. Petter and K. Rasmussen; Flow Measurement and Instrumentation; Volume 73, June 2020, 101747, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2020.101747.
Arrhenius, K., Büker, O., Fischer, A., Persijn, S.T., & Moore, N. D. (2020). Development and evaluation of a novel analyser for ISO14687 hydrogen purity analysis. Measurement Science and Technology, 31(7), 075010.
H. Meuzelaar, A. Dragovic, J. van Wijk, S.Persijn, Trace level analysis of reactive ISO14687-2 impurities in hydrogen gas, Gas Analysis 2019, abstract submitted.
A. Murugan et. al., “Measurement challenges for hydrogen vehicles”, Int. Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2017.
L. Spinelle, M. Gerboles, G. Kok, S.T. Persijn and T. Sauerwald “Review of portable and low-cost sensors for the ambient air monitoring of benzene and other volatile organic compounds”, Sensors Journal, http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/17/7/1520.
J. Englert, A. Claude, A. Demichelis, S.T. Persijn, A. Baldan, J. Li, C. Plass-Duelmer, K. Michl, E. Tensing, R. Wortmann, Y. Ghorafi, M. Lecuna, G. Sassi, M. P. Sassi, D. Kubistin, “Preparation and analysis of zero gases for the measurement of trace VOCs in air monitoring”, submitted for publication in “Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT)”.
T. Sauerwald, T. Baur, M. Leidinger, W. Reimringer, L. Spinelle, M. Gerboles, G. Kok and A. Schütze, “Highly sensitive benzene detection with metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors - an interlaboratory comparison”, submitted for publication in Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems (JSSS).
Iris de Krom, R. Peter van Otterloo, Ruben P. Ziel, Jianrong Li, Adriaan M.H. van der Veen, “First proficiency test on the siloxanes content in biomethane and upgraded biogas with traceable reference values”, Proceedings GAS Analysis 2017, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, June 2017.
Drilling Engineer Association Europe (DEAe) meeting Q1 2016, March 2016, Huisman, Netherlands.
Drilling Systems Automation Technical Section of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), 23 June 2016.
Metrological support for LNG and LBG as transport fuel
Kenbar, A., Schakel, M., Influence of Flow Disturbances on Measurement Uncertainty of Industry-Standard LNG Flow Meters, submitted to Flow Measurement and Instrumentation.
Schakel, M. (auteur), Standiford, D. (reviewer), Smits, E. (reviewer), Liquid nitrogen calibrations of industry standard LNG flow meters used in LNG custody transfer, download availbable through following link: https://lngmetrology.info/vsl-releases-first-results-of-flow-meters-calibrated-in-cryogenic-conditions-at-its-lng-test-facility/, published: 20 December 2019.
ISO/TC 28/WG 20, ISO/DIS 21903:2018(E), 2018, Refrigerated Hydrocarbon Fluids — Dynamic Measurement — Requirements and guidelines for the calibration and installation of flowmeters used for LNG and other refrigerated hydrocarbon fluids.
[*for LNG: please, also refer to Flow measurement]
Metrology for oxidised mercury
Iris de Krom, “Traceable calibration methods for oxidised mercury”, Envirotech-online 2019.
Traceability for mercury measurements
“Characterising and reducing the blank response from mercury vapour sorbent tubes”, Richard J C Brown, Emma Braysher, Elizabeth McGhee, Sharon L Goddard, Hugo Ent, Ki-Hyun Kim and Jasslie Nielsen; Anal. Methods (2017), 9, 2654.
Metrology for nitrogen dioxide
S. Persijn, Purity analysis of gases used in the preparation of reference gas standards using a versatile OPO-based CRDS spectrometer, paper in International Journal of Spectroscopy, Article ID 9845608, 7 pages, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9845608, (accepted for publication).
S.T. Persijn, Gas standards for nitrogen dioxide - Current status and new developments, paper in Gasworld supplement, September 2017, 24-25 https://www.gasworld.com/gas-standards-for-nitrogen-dioxide/2013384.article.
S. Persijn, Purity analysis of gases used in the preparation of reference gas standards using a versatile OPO-based CRDS spectrometer, paper in International Journal of Spectroscopy (accepted for publication).
S.T. Persijn. Gas standards for nitrogen dioxide- Current status and new developments. Gasworld supplement, September 2017, 24-25.
Metrology for air pollutant emissions
A. van Hove, 2018, Towards effective emission regulations: A numerical and experimental study on flow measurement uncertainty in stacks, internship report on project website through the following link http://empir.npl.co.uk/impress/documents-and-publications/.
E L E C T R I C I T Y
Metrology for smart energy management in electric railway systems
Helko E. van den Brom, Ronald van Leeuwen, Ralph Hornecker, “Characterization of DC current sensors with AC distortion for railway applications”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 68, pp. 2084-2090, June 2019, DOI 10.1109/TIM.2019.2898014.
D. Giordano, P. Clarkson, F. Garnacho, H.E. van den Brom, L. Donadio, A. Fernandez-Cardador, N. Filippini, D. Gallo, D. Istrate, A. De Santiago Laporte, A. Mariscotti, C. Mester, N. Navarro, M. Porzio, A. Roscoe, M. Šíra: Accurate Measurements of Energy, Efficiency and Power Quality in the Electric Railway system, CPEM2018 conference proceedings, 8-13 July 2018, Paris, France.
Electromagnetic interference on static electricity meters
Ronald van Leeuwen, Helko van den Brom, Dennis Hoogenboom, Gertjan Kok, Gert Rietveld, “Current waveforms of household appliances for advanced meter testing”, AMPS 2019, Aachen, Germany, DOI
Helko van den Brom, Zander Marais, Dennis Hoogenboom, Ronald van Leeuwen, and Gert Rietveld, “A Testbed for Static Electricity Meter Testing with Conducted EMI”, EMC Europe 2019, Barcelona, Spain, DIO
Zander Marais, Helko van den Brom, Gert Rietveld, Ronald van Leeuwen, Dennis Hoogenboom, and Johan Rens, “Sensitivity of static energy meter reading errors to changes in non-sinusoidal load conditions”, EMC Europe 2019, Barcelona, Spain, DOI 10.1109/EMCEurope.2019.8872006.
Fani Barakou, Paul Wright, Helko van den Brom, Gertjan Kok, and Gert Rietveld, “Detection Methods for Current Signals Causing Errors in Static Electricity Meters”, EMC Europe 2019, Barcelona, Spain, DIO
Measurements in high voltage grids
Gert Rietveld, Paul Wright, and Andrew Roscoe, “Reliable Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF) Measurements: Use Cases and Test Conditions,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 69, No. 9, pp. 6657 – 6666 (2020), DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2020.2986069.
Gert Rietveld, Paul Wright, and Andrew Roscoe, “Requirements and Test Conditions for Reliable Rate-of-Change-of-Frequency Measurements,” Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 10th International Workshop on Applied Measurements for Power Systems (AMPS), Aachen, Germany, pp. 153-158 (2019), DOI: 10.1109/AMPS.2019.8897789.
Paul S. Wright, Peter N. Davis, Kevin Johnstone, Gert Rietveld, and Andrew J. Roscoe, “Field Measurement of Frequency and RoCoF in the Presence of Phase Steps,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 68, No. 6, pp. 1688 – 1695 (2019), DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2018.2882907.
R. Adams, G. Rietveld, M. Albu, G. Borloo, D. Calpetta, A. Ortega, J. Widmer, A. Verissimo, J. Bergara, “Improved metering systems for billing purposes in substations”, Elektra 308, pp. 104 – 109 (2020).
Gert Rietveld, Martin Fransen, Nicolas V.F. Blanc, and Eddy So, “Design and Testing of a Reference Setup for On-Site Power Measurements in High-Voltage Grids,” Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 10th International Workshop on Applied Measurements for Power Systems (AMPS), Aachen, Germany, pp. 18-22 (2019), DOI: 10.1109/AMPS.2019.8897788.
E. Houtzager, R. Hornecker, and G. Rietveld, “Compact distributed digitizers with metrological precision,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 68, No. 6, pp. 1653 – 1658 (2019), DIO
V. Milojevic, S. Calija, G. Rietveld, M. Acanski, and D. Colangelo, “Utilization of PMU Measurements for Three-Phase Line Parameter Estimation in Power Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 67, No. 10, pp. 2453 – 2462 (2018), DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2018.2843098.
Vladimir Milojevic, Srdjan Calija, Gert Rietveld, Milos Acanski, “A Robust Synchrophasor-Based Method for Determining Three-Phase Line Impedance”, Proceedings of the IEEE international workshop on Applied Measurements for Power Systems (AMPS), Liverpool, UK, pp. 1 – 6 (2017), DOI: 10.1109/AMPS.2017.8078340.
Loss measurements on power transformers, reactors and HVDC
Gert Rietveld, Ernest Houtzager, Dennis Hoogenboom, and Gu Ye, “Reliable Power Transformer Efficiency Tests”, Proceedings of the 5th International Colloquium Transformer Research and Asset Management (ICTRAM), Opatija, Croatia, pp. 1-8 (2019), DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3559845.
Anders Bergman, Allan Bergman, Bengt Jönsson, Gert Rietveld, Mathieu Sauzay, Jonathan Walmsley, John-Bjarne Sund, “Estimating Uncertainty in Loss Measurement of Power Transformers”, Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, pp. 805 – 814 (2020), DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3559837.
Anders Bergman, Gert Rietveld, “Feasibility of direct measurement of HVDC converter station loss”, CIGRE Science & Engineering (CSE), CSE015, pp. 85 – 93 (2019). http://ri.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:1374357
G. Rietveld, E. Mohns, E. Houtzager, H. Badura, D. Hoogenboom, Comparison of two Reference Setups for Calibrating Power Transformer Loss Measurement Systems, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 68, No. 6, pp. 1732 – 1739 (2019), DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2018.2879171.
Gert Rietveld and Ernest Houtzager, “High-accuracy reference setup for system calibration of transformer loss measurement systems”, Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering (ISH 2017), pp. 1 – 6 (2017).
Gert Rietveld, Ernest Houtzager, Milos Acanski, and Dennis Hoogenboom, “Meeting Ecodesign Efficiency Requirements: Ensuring Accuracy in Power Transformer Loss Tests via TLM System Calibrations,” Proceedings of the 24st International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED), Glasgow, Scotland, pp. 1 – 5 (2017), DOI: 10.1049/oap-cired.2017.0475.
Measurement Tools for Smart Grid Stability and Supply Quality Management
N. Save, M. Popov, A. Jongepier, and G. Rietveld, “PMU-based power system analysis of a MV distribution grid”, Abstract accepted for the Proceedings of the 24st International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED), Glasgow, Scotland, pp. 1-2 (2017).
Vladimir Ćuk, Fei Ni, Shuang Xue, Arjen Jongepier, Helko van den Brom, Gert Rietveld, Miloš Ačanski, and Sjef Cobben, “Determination of flicker contributions based on synchronised measurements of rapid RMS changes,” Proceedings of the 24st International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED), Glasgow, Scotland, pp. 1-2 (2017).
Daniele Colangelo, Dennis Hoogenboom, Erik Dierikx, Gert Rietveld, and Guglielmo Frigo, “Metrological Characterization of a PMU Calibrator in the 25 Hz to 3 kHz Range”, Proc. PowerTech Conf. 2017, Manchester, UK, 2017).
Non-conventional voltage and current sensors for future power grids
Good practice guide: “Recommendations related to the calibration and testing of nonconventional current and voltage sensors”.
E. Houtzager, E. Moons, S. Fricke, B. Ayhan, T. Kefeli, H. Çayci , “Calibration systems for analogue non-conventional voltage and current transducers”, CPEM2016 (2016 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements).
E. Mohns, A. Mortara, H. Cayci, E. Houtzager, S. Fricke, M. Agustoni, B. Ayhan, “Calibration of Commercial Test Sets for Non-Conventional Instrument Transformers”, 2017 IEEE International Workshop on Applied Measurements for Power Systems (AMPS).
Traceability for electrical measurements at millimetre-wave and terahertz frequencies for communications and electronics technologies
Faisal Mubarak, R. Romano, G. Rietveld and M. Spirito, “A novel calibration method for active interferometer-based VNAs”, IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 30, No. 8, pp. 829 – 832 (2020), DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2020.3006701.
F. Mubarak, R. Romano, L. Galatro, V. Mascolo, G. Rietveld, and M. Spirito, "Noise Behavior and Implementation of Interferometer Module Based Broadband VNA", IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 67, No. 1, pp. 249 – 260 (2019), DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2018.2874667.
K. Haddadi, E. Okada, K. Daffé, F. Mubarak, D. Théron, G. Dambrine, "Multiport Vector Network Analyzer Configured in RF Interferometric Mode for Reference Impedance Renormalization," IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, Boston, MA, pp. 1-3, 2019.
Faisal Ali Mubarak and Gert Rietveld, “Uncertainty evaluation of calibrated Vector Network Analyzers,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 66, No. 2, pp. 1108 – 1120 (2018), DOI
I O N I S I N G R A D I A T I O N
Direct measurement of ion chamber correction factors, kQ and kB, in a 7 MV MRI-linac 2019 de Prez L, Woodings S, de Pooter J, van Asselen B, Wolthaus J, Jansen B and Raaymakers B Phys. Med. Biol. 64 105025
Commissioning of a water calorimeter as a primary standard for absorbed dose to water in magnetic fields 2019 de Prez L, de Pooter J, Jansen B, Woodings S, Wolthaus J, van Asselen B, van Soest T, Kok J and Raaymakers B Phys. Med. Biol. 64 035013
Corrigendum: Comparison of kQ factors measured with a water calorimeter in flattening filter free (FFF) and conventional flattening filter (cFF) photon beams 2019 de Prez L, de Pooter J, Jansen B, Perik T and Wittkämper F Phys. Med. Biol. 64 039501
Clinical application of kQ factors for reference dosimetry in flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams 2019 de Prez L, Andersen C, De Pooter J and Palmans H ESTRO invited SP-0237 Radiother. Oncol. 133 S118
Comparison of kQ factors measured with a water calorimeter in flattening filter free (FFF) and conventional flattening filter (cFF) photon beams 2018 de Prez L, de Pooter J, Jansen B, Perik T and Wittkämper F Phys. Med. Biol. 63
An on-site dosimetry audit for high-energy electron beams 2018 de Prez L, Heukelom S, Jansen B, Jansen W, van de Kamer J, van Klink W, Kok E, Perik T, de Pooter J and Wittkämper F Phys. Imaging Radiat. Oncol. 5 44–51
NCS Report 29: An on-site dosimetry audit for high-energy electron beams 2018 de Prez L, Heukelom S, Jansen B, Jansen W, Kok E, Perik T, de Pooter J and Wittkämper F NCS Delft
T E M P E R A T U R E M E A S U R E M E N T
“Effect of Pressure on Deep-Ocean Thermometers”, A. Peruzzi, R. Bosma en S. Ober, Int J Thermophys (2017) 38:163.
O P T I C S
Metrology for complex thin film materials with energy applications
O. El Gawhary, T. Van Mechelen and H. P. Urbach, Reply, Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 089302 (2019).
P. Sonin, J. de Pooter, O. El Gawhary, Optische Metrologie op NMI-niveau, Ned. Tijdschr. v Natuurkunde 9, 8-13 (2019)
O. El Gawhary, T. Van Mechelen, H. P. Urbach, Role of Radial Charges on the Angular Momentum of Electromagnetic Fields: Spin-3/2 Light, paper in Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 123202 –2018.
Metrology for earth observation and climate
Steven van den Berg, Paul Dekker, Max Reiniger, Berndt Gutschwager, Christian Monte, Jörg Hollandt, Traceability of the Network for Detection of the Mesospheric Change (NDMC) to radiometric standards via a Near Infrared Filter radiometer, paper in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 972, conference 1 (2018).
Steven van den Berg, Paul Dekker, Tessel van der Laan, Gerard Otter, Niels Dijkhuizen, Bilgehan Gür, Sanneke Brinkers, Traceable radiance source for spectroradiometer calibration, poster presentation, International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO), Ghania (Crete), Greece, 9-12 Oct. 2018.
Steven van den Berg, Paul Dekker, Tessel van der Laan, Gerard Otter, Niels Dijkhuizen, Bilgehan Gür, Sanneke Brinkers, Traceable radiance source for spectroradiometer calibration, Proceedings of International Conference on Space Optics - ICSO 2018 – SPIE (to be published).
Metrology for efficient and safe innovative lighting
Armin Sperling, Maic Meyer, Stefan Pendsa, Werner Jordan, Elena Revtova, Tuomas Poikonen, Dominique Renoux and Peter Blattner, ‘Multiple transfer standard for calibration and characterization of test setups for LED lamps and luminaires in industry’, accepted for publication in Metrologia.
Elena Revtova, Edgar Moreno Vuelban, Dongsheng Zhao, Jacques Brenkman and Henk Ulden ‘Traceability validation of a high speed short-pulse testing method used in LED production’, Int. J. Metrol. Qual. Eng. 8, 30 (2017).
Traceability for atmospheric total column ozone
“The official newsletter of the Thematic Network for Ultraviolet Measurements”, March 2017. The article is about the results of the measurement campaign in Izana, using the wavelength scale, developed by VSL, during the project, to calibrate the wavelength scale of different instruments. Please refer to UVNews 12, March 2017 (http://metrology.tkk.fi/uvnet/reports.htm).
A peer-reviewed scientific publications was submitted for and accepted by Atmospheric Measurement Technique (https://www.atmos-meas-tech-discuss.net/amt-2017-406/).
Traceable characterisation of thin-film materials for energy applications
O. El Gawhary, “Helmholtz Natural Modes: the universal and discrete spatial fabric of electromagnetic wavefields”, New Journal of Physics (New J. Phys. 19 013021, 2017).
T I M E & F R E Q U E N C Y
Time Synchronisation IMpact Enabling FUture Network Communication (TIMEFUNC)
Erik F. Dierikx, Yan Xie, "White Rabbit Good Practice Guide", 2 May 2019
F L O W M E A S U R E M E N T
Pixel‐wise assessment of cardiovascular magnetic resonance first‐pass perfusion using a cardiac phantom mimicking transmural myocardial perfusion gradients
Xenios Milidonis, Muhammad Sohaib Nazir, Torben Schneider, Myles Capstick, Sita Drost, Gertjan Kok, Nicola Pelevic, Christian Poelma, Tobias Schaeffter, Amedeo Chiribiri, 19 May 2020 ( https://doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28296 )
A calibrated physical flow standard for medical perfusion imaging
G. Kok, N. Pelevic, A. Chiribiri, X. Milidonis, M. Nazir, M. Capstick, S. Drost, C. Poelma, T. Schaeffter, 2 February 2021 ( https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2021.101907 )
Narrow stack emissions: Errors in flow rate measurement due to disturbances and swirl
FS.Knotek, M. Workamp, J. Gersl, M.D. Schakel , 30 November 2020 ( https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2020.1832621)
High-speed density measurement for LNG and other cryogenic fluids using electrical capacitance tomography
Andrew Hunt, Ijhar Rusli, Menne Schakel, Asaad Kenbar
Cryogenics, Volume 113, 2021, 103207, ISSN 0011-2275 ( https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cryogenics.2020.103207 )
Density Measurements of (0.99 Methane + 0.01 Butane) and (0.98 Methane + 0.02 Isopentane) over the Temperature Range from (100 to 160) K at Pressures up to 10.8 MPa
Eckmann P., Preetzmann N. von, Cavuoto, G. et al.
Int J Thermophys 41, 156 (2020). ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s10765-020-02728-2 )